How Far To Plant Apple Trees Apart 🍎 How to Cultivating Apple Plants 🍎 - Answer

How Far To Plant Apple Trees Apart 🍎 How to Cultivating Apple Plants 🍎

How Far To Plant Apple Trees Apart These apples were first planted in the Central Asian region, and they are now grown in many parts of the world where the air temperature is colder. Apple is an annual fruit plant native to Western Asia with a subtropical environment. And it has been planted in Indonesia since 1934 until today.

How Far To Plant Apple Trees Apart 🍎 How to Cultivating Apple Plants  🍎

How Far To Plant Apple Trees Apart


Apple plant types classified by Systematics of apple plants are included in:

  • 1. Classification: Spermatophyta
  • 2. Classification: Angiospermae
  • 3. Family: Dicotyledonae
  • 4. Rosales' Order
  •  5.Rosaceae is a family of plants.
  • 6.Malus is a genus of trees.
  • 7.Malus sylvestris Mill.

There are several variants of the Mill sylvestris species, each with its own set of traits. Rome Beauty, Manalagi, Anna, Princess Noble, and Wangli/Lali Jiwo are some of the best apple kinds. So, we're getting right to the meat of the article: the best suggestions for planting and cultivating these apples.

Plant Advantages

Apples are high in Vitamin C and B, and they are frequently used as a substitute food by dieters.

Planting Facility

Apples may grow and bear fruit in Indonesia, both in highland and lowland locations. Apple has manufacturing facilities in Malang (Batu and Poncokusumo) and Pasuruan (Nongkojajar), both in East Java. Apples have been farmed in this area since (1950) and have grown significantly since (1960) till present. Aside from that, apple plantations can be found in East Java (Kayumas-Situbondo, Banyuwangi), Central Java (Tawangmangu), Bali (Buleleng and Tabanan), West Nusa Tenggara, and East Nusa Tenggara. Also in the south of Sulawesi, while the world's planting hubs are in Europe, America, and Australia.

Growing Conditions

1. Climate

1. The ideal rainfall is (1,000-2,600 mm/year with 110-150 rainy days/year). In a year the number of wet or rainy months is 6-7 months and 3-4 dry months. High rainfall at the time of flowering will cause the flowers to fall so they cannot become fruit.

2. Apple plants need enough sunlight (50-60%) every day. Especially at the time of Flowering.

3. The suitable temperature ranges from (16-27 degrees C).

4. The humidity the apple plants want or need is around (75-85%).

Growing media

1. Apple plants grow well in deep soil, have a high organic layer, and the soil structure is crumbly and loose, has good aeration, water absorption, and good porosity. So that the exchange of oxygen and the movement of nutrients and the ability to store water is optimal.

2. Suitable soils are Latosol, Andosol and Regosol.

3. The degree of acidity of the soil, the suitable pH for apple plants is 6-7 and the soil water content needed is available water.

4. In its growth, apple plants require sufficient soil water content.

5. Slopes that are too sharp will make it difficult to care for plants. So if it is still possible to make terracing, the land is still suitable for planting.

Venue Altitude

Apple plants can grow and bear fruit both at altitudes (700-1200 m asl) and with optimal altitudes (1000-1200 m asl).

Cultivation Guidelines

Apple plant propagation is done vegetatively and generatively. Good and long propagation and often produce seeds that deviate from the parent. Generative propagation techniques are carried out by seed, while vegetative propagation is carried out by grafting or budding or grafting and cuttings.

1. Seed Requirements: The requirements for the rootstock are wild apples, have broad and strong roots, the shape of the tree is sturdy, have high adaptability, while the requirements for the buds are that they come from healthy apple plant stems and have superior properties.

2. Seed preparation: Seed preparation is carried out by means of propagation of rootstock by doing the following steps below:

A. Puppies/Siwilan

1. The characteristics of the saplings taken are 30 cm high, 0.5 cm in diameter, and brownish bark.
2. Saplings are taken from the base of the lower stems of productive plants by digging the soil around the tree, then the saplings are removed along with their roots slowly and carefully.
3. After the saplings are removed, the saplings are rompes and the branches are cut, then planted in beds 60 cm wide with a trench depth of 40 cm.

B. Layering

1. Seedlings from mounds can be obtained in two ways, namely:
1. Saplings of wild mother trees: Saplings that are rather long are laid down attached to the ground, then branches are clamped on wood and buried in the ground. Hoarding is done for each eye and when the shoots are strong enough, they can be separated by cutting the branches.
2. Lowering the paddy stem patch: This is done when the patch is opened (2 weeks), namely by cutting 2/3 of the cross-section of the paddy field stem. about 2 cm above the patch, and the rusty top is immersed in the ground and then bent again upwards. Then put a wooden or bamboo clamp on the bend.
2. After the mound is about 4 months old, do the separation of the seeds by cutting the stem obliquely under the bend or bend. Then the scar is smeared with defoliant.

C. Cuttings

Wild apple cuttings are 15-20 cm long (uniform and straight in diameter). Prior to planting, dip the bottom of the cuttings in Roton F solution to stimulate root growth. And the spacing of planting (30 x 25 cm) Each bed is planted in two rows, and the cuttings are ready to be grafted at the age of 5 months, and the diameter of the stem is 1 cm and the roots are quite strong.

Nursery Engineering

A. Attachment.

1. Choose a rootstock that meets the requirements, namely those that are 5 months old, and a stem diameter of ± 1 cm and the bark is easily peeled off from the wood.

2. Take the eye patch from a healthy branch or stem that comes from a superior variety of apple tree that has proven superiority. the trick is to cut the eye patch along with the wood along 2.5-5cm. (Her eyes are in the middle) Then the layers of wood are removed carefully so that the eyes are not damaged.

3. Make an open stem bark tongue on the rootstock ± 20 cm high from the base of the stem with a size that is adjusted to the eye patch, and the tongue is lifted from the wood and cut in half.

4. Insert the eye patch into the rootstock tongue so that it sticks well. Continue to tie the patch with white plastic tape to all parts of the patch.

5. After 2-3 weeks, the patch bond can be opened and sprayed/compressed with (ZPT). Then the finished patch has a patch mark that is fresh green and sticks.

6. In the finished grafting, cut the stem about 2 cm above the grafting with the transverse position slightly inclined upwards as deep as 2/3 of the cross section. The goal is to concentrate growth so as to stimulate the growth of the buds.

B. Splicing

1. Upper stem (Entres) in the form of branches (lateral branch shoots).
2. The rootstock is cut at a height of 20 cm from the root collar.
3. Cut the shoots and split the center of the rootstock 2-5 cm long.
4. The entres branch is cut 15 cm long (3 eyes) and the leaves are removed. Then the base of the scion is sliced ​​into a wedge shape. And the length of the slice is equal to the length of the rootstock.
5. The scion is inserted into the rootstock, so that the cambium of the two can meet.
6. Tie the connection with plastic rope as tightly as possible.
7. Cover each connection with a plastic bag. Then after 2-3 weeks of age, the plastic hood can be opened to see if the connection is successful.

Nursery Maintenance

Rootstock maintenance includes:

A. Fertilization: Fertilization is done once every 1-2 months with urea and TSP 5 grams each per plant (spread around) around the plant.
B. Weeding : Weeding time depends on weed growth.
C. Pengiran : Once a week (if it's not raining).
D. Pest and Disease Eradication: Pesticide is sprayed 2 times per month taking into account the symptoms of attack, the fungicide used is (Antracol or Dithane). While the insecticide is (Supracide or Decis). Together with this can also be given foliar fertilizer, and added adhesive (Agristic).

Transfer of Seeds
Grafting grafting or (attachment and connection) seedlings can be transferred to the field at the age of at least 6 months after grafting. Cut into pieces up to 80-100 cm and leaves in rompes.

Planting Media Processing

1. Preparation: The preparations needed are preparation for tillage and conducting surveys. And the purpose is to find out the type of plant, the slope of the land, the condition of the soil, determine the need for labor, equipment materials, and the costs needed / needed.
2. Land clearing: Land is processed by hoeing the soil while cleaning up the remains of plants that are still left behind.
3. Formation of beds: In apple plants, beds are hardly needed, but only raising the planting pestle.
4. Liming : Liming aims to maintain the soil pH balance, Liming is only done if the soil pH is less than 6.
5. Fertilization: Fertilizer that is given to land management is manure as much as (20 grams) per planting hole which is mixed evenly with the soil, after that it is left for 2 weeks.

Planting Technique

1. Determination of Planting Pattern: Apple plants can be planted in monoculture or intercroping. Intercroping can only be done if the soil has not been covered with leaf crowns before 2 years. But at this time, after going through several intercroping studies on apple plants, it can be done with low-habitat plants, such as: chilies, onions and others. Apple plants cannot be planted at a distance that is too tight because it will become very dense which will cause high humidity, lack of air circulation, inhibited sunlight and increase disease growth The ideal spacing for apple plants depends on the variety. For the Manalagi and Prices Moble varieties it is 3-3.5 x 3.5 m, while for the Rome Beauty and Anna varieties it can be shorter, namely 2-3 x 2.5-3 m.

2. Making the planting hole: The size of the planting hole is between (50 x 50 x 50 cm) to (1 x 1 x 1 m). The topsoil and subsoil are separated, each mixed with manure of approximately 20 kg, then the soil is left for 2 weeks, and before planting the excavated soil is returned according to its origin.

3. Planting method: Planting apples is done either during the rainy or dry seasons (in rice fields) for upland land it is recommended during the rainy season. So here's how to plant apple seeds:

1. Enter the bottom soil of the seedling into the planting hole.

2. Put the seeds in the middle of the hole while spreading the roots so they spread.
3. Put the top soil in the hole up to the roots and add the soil dug into the hole.
4. When all the soil has entered, then the soil is pressed gently by hand so that the seeds are planted firmly and straight. And to withstand the wind, seeds can be planted on stakes with loose ties.

Plant Maintenance

1. Thinning and Stitching: Plant thinning is not done. While embroidery is done on plants that die or are turned off because they do not produce by planting new plants to replace old plants. Stitching should be done in the rainy season.
2. Weeding: Weeding is only done around the mother plant where there are many weeds that are considered to be disturbing the plants. In gardens planted with apples at a tight spacing so that grass cannot grow.
3. Pembubunan: Weeding which is usually followed by piling up the soil, Pembubunan is meant to raise the soil around the plants again so that it is not stagnant with water and also to loosen the soil. Pembubunan is usually done after harvest or together with fertilization.
4. Pruning/Pruning: The parts that need to be pruned are the newly planted seedlings as high as 80 cm, Shoots that grow below 60 cm, End shoots of several segments of the shoots, 4-6 eyes and former fruit stalks, Knobs that do not fertile, diseased branches, and unproductive. Branches that make it difficult for months to get the desired shape 4-5 years.
5. Fertilization: Rainy season / Paddy field soil. Simultaneously rompes leaves.

Pests And Diseases
1. Pests. Green flea (Aphis pomi Geer)

Characteristics: Adult fleas are yellowish green, short antennae, body length 1.8 mm, some are winged and some are wingless. Wing length 1.7 mm, black in color and very fast breeding, eggs can hatch in 3-4 days.

Symptom :

1. Nymphs and adult lice attack by sucking liquid cells, leaves in groups on the surface of young leaves, especially at the tips of young shoots, branch stalks, flowers and fruit,
2. Fleas produce honeydew which will coat the surface of the leaves and stimulate the growth of black fungus (soot dew). And the leaves change shape.

1. Sanitation of the garden and setting the spacing is not too tight.
2. With the natural enemy of coccinellidae lycosa.
3. By spraying Supracide 40 EC (Ba Metidation) Dosage of 2 cc/liter of water or 1-1.6 liters.
4. Supracide 40 EC in 500-800 liters/ha of water with an interval of spraying once every 2 weeks.
5. Convidor 200 SL (b.a. Imidacloprid) Dosage 0.125-0.250 cc/liter of water.
6. Convidor 200 SL in 600 liters/h of water with an interval of spraying every 10 days.
7. The convidor can kill up to its eggs, by spraying it from top to bottom. And spraying is done 1-2 weeks before flowering and continued 1-1.5 months after the flowers bloom until 15 days before harvest.

2. Mites, Spinder mite, Red whip, (panonychus Ulmi)

Characteristics: Dark red color, 0.6 mm long.
1. Mites attack the leaves by sucking the fluid of the leaf cells.
2. In severe attacks, it causes opaque yellow spots, brown, and dries up.
3. On fruit that causes silvery or brown spots.


1. With natural enemies of coccinellidae and lycosa.
2. Spraying Omite 570 EC Acaricide as much as 2 cc/liter of water or 1 liter of Omite 570 EC Acaricide in 500 liters of water/hectare with 2 week intervals.

3. Trips

Characteristics: Small in size with a length of 1 mm, nymphs are yellowish white, Adults are blackish brown, Move quickly and when touched they will immediately fly away.


1. Boil leaves, buds, and very young fruit.
2. White spots appear on the leaves, both sides of the leaves roll up and grow abnormally.
3. At the end of the shoot leaves dry and fall.
4. On the leaves leave scars that are grayish brown.

1. Mechanically by removing the eggs on the leaves and keeping the plant canopy environment from being too dense.
2. Spraying with insecticides such as lannate 25 WP (b.a. Methomyl) at a dose of 2 cc/liter of water or Lebaycid 550 EC (b.a. Fention) at a dose of 2 cc/liter of water when the plants are sprouting, flowering and fruit formation.

4. Leaf Caterpillars (Spodopteralitura)
Characteristics: Larvae are green with gray stripes extending from the abdomen to the head. On the lateral side of the larvae there are black spots that are circular or semicircular in shape. Laying eggs in groups and covered with fine light brown hairs.
Symptoms: Attack the leaves, resulting in irregular holes to the bones of the leaves

1. Mechanically by removing the eggs on the leaves
2. Spraying with sprays such as Tamaron 200 LC (b.a. Metamidophos) and Nuvacron 20 SCW (b.a. Monocrotofos).

5. Leaf Sucking Insects (Helopelthis Sp)
Characteristics: Helopelthis theivora with a black and red abdomen, while Antoni's helopelthis with a red and white abdomen, Small insects, newly dripping nymphs 1 mm long and adults 6-8 mm long. On the thorax there is a lump that resembles a needle.
Symptoms: Attacking in the morning, evening or when conditions are cloudy. Attacks young leaves, shoots and fruit by sucking cell fluids. Affected leaves turn brown and develop asymmetrically. Affected shoots turn brown, dry out and eventually die too. Attacks on fruit cause fruit to become brown spots, necrosis, and if the fruit enlarges, these spots break, which causes the quality of the fruit to decrease.

1. Mechanically by shelling the plastic roof/jumping fruit.
2. Spraying with insecticides such as: Lannate 25 WP (b.a. Metomyl), Baycarb 500 EC (b.a. BPMC) Which is done in the afternoon or early morning.

6. Black Leaf Caterpillar (Dasychira Inclusa Walker)
Characteristics: The larvae have 2 black crests near the head that lead to the side collar of the head, and on the body there are 4 crests which are clusters and are blackish brown. Along the 2 sides of the body there are hairs which are gray in color and the length of the larvae is 50 mm.
Symptoms: Attacks young and old leaves, and plants that are attacked only leaves the bones of the leaves with 30% damage. And during the day the larvae hide behind the leaves.

1. Mechanically by removing the eggs which are usually placed on the leaves.
2. Spraying insecticides such as: Nuvacron 20 SCW (b.a. Monocrotofos) and Matador 25 EC.

7. Fruit fly (Rhagloletis Pomonella)
Features: The larvae have no legs, after hatching from the eggs 10 days later they can immediately eat the flesh of the fruit, the color of the flies is black, and the legs are yellowish and then lay the eggs on the fruit,
Symptoms: The shape of the fruit becomes ugly, and looks like lumps.

1. Spraying contact insecticides such as Lebacyd 550 EC.
2. Make a device for male flies using 0.1 cc of Methyleugenol and then drip it on cotton that has been dripped with 2 cc of insecticide. And the cotton is put in a plastic bottle (used mineral water) which is hung at a height of 2 meters.

1. Powdery Mildew Disease (Powdery Mildew)
 Cause: Padosphaera leucottich Salm. With its imperfect Stadia is oidium Sp.
Symptom :
1. The upper leaves appear white or white, the shoots are abnormal, stunted and do not bear fruit,
2. The fruit is brown, and the warty is brown.

1. Cut the shoots or parts that are diseased and burned.
2. By spraying Nimrod fungicide 250 EC (2.5-5 cc/10 liters of water (500 liters/Ha) or Afugan 300 EC (0.5-1 cc/liter of water (prevention) and 1-1.5 cc/ liter of water After spoiling until the shoots are 4-5 weeks old with an interval of 5-7 days.

Leaf Spot Disease (Marssonina coronaria J.J. Davis)
Symptoms: On leaves aged 4-6 weeks after decay, you can see irregular white spots, brown in color, and black dots appear on the upper surface, starting from old leaves, young leaves to all parts of the fall.
1. Spacing is not too tight, and the affected parts are discarded or burned.
2. Spray Agrisan 60 WP 2 gram/liter of water fungicide, Dose of 1000-2000 gram/ha from 10 days after decay with 1 week intervals of 10 applications or delseme MX 200 2 gram/liter of water, Henlate 0.5 gram/liter of water from the age of 4 days after dropping with an interval of 7 days to 4 weeks.
3. Red mushroom (Cortisium salmonicolor berk et Br).
Control: Reduce garden moisture, and remove diseased plant parts.
4. Cancer (Botryosphaeria Sp)
Symptoms: Attacking the stem/branches (rot, blackish brown, and sometimes ooze). And fruit (Small spots of light brown color, rotten, bubbling, watery, and pale fruit color.

1. Do not harvest overripe fruit.
2. Reduce garden humidity.
3. Discard the sick part.
4. Scraping diseased stems and then smearing Difolatan 4 F 100 cc/10 liter of water or copper sandoz fungicide.
5. Spray Benomyl 0.5 grams/liter of water, Antracol 70 WP 2 grams/liter of water.

5. Fruit rot (Gloeosporium Sp)
Symptoms: Small brown spots and black spots turn orange.
Control: Not picking too ripe fruit, and dipping with Benomyl 0.5 gram/liter of water to prevent disease in storage.

6. Root Rot (Armilliaria Melea)
Symptoms: Approaching the apple crop in cold wet areas, marked by wilting leaves, fall, and rotting root bark.
Control: By erasing, namely dismantling / uprooting the affected plants and their roots, and the former holes are not planted at least (1 year).

8. Harvest
Characteristics and Age of Harvest
In general, apples can be harvested at the age of 4-5 months after the flowers bloom. And depending on the variety and climate. Rome beauty can be picked around the age of 120-141 days from the time the flowers bloom, can be harvested at the age of 141 days after the flowers open and Anna around 100 days. But in the rainy season and higher altitudes, the fruit's lifespan is longer.
Harvesting is best done when the plants reach the physiological maturity level (Ripening), which is the level at which the fruit has the ability to become normal ripe after being harvested. The physiological characteristics of apples are: the size of the fruit looks maximum, the aroma of the fruit begins to be felt, and the color of the fruit looks bright and fresh and feels (crunch) when pressed.

How to Harvest
Apple picking is done by picking fruit by hand simultaneously for each garden.

Harvest Period
The apple harvest period is once every 6 months based on the maintenance cycle that has been carried out.

Production Forecast
Apple fruit production is very dependent on the variety, in general apple production is 6-15 kg/tree.

1. Collection: After being picked, the apples are collected in a place that is in the shade or not exposed to direct sunlight so that the respiration rate decreases so that you get apples of high quality as well as quantity. The collection is done carefully, if possible, don't pile it up and throw it around. Then brought with a basket in the warehouse for selection.
2. Sorting and categorizing: Sorting is done to separate good and disease-free fruit from bad fruit or diseased fruit. So that the disease is not infected with all the fruit that is harvested which can reduce the quality of the product. Classification is done to classify products based on the type of variety, size and quality of fruit.
3. Storage: Basically apples can be stored longer than other fruits, for example, Rome beauty 21-28 days (Pick age 113-120 days) Or 7-14 days (Pick age 127-141 days ). For longer storage (4-7 months) should be stored at minus 6-0 degrees C with precooling 2.2 degrees C.
4. Packaging and Transportation: The packaging used is cardboard with a size (48 x 33 x 37 cm) with a weight of 35 kg of apples. The base and top of the apple arrangement need to be cut with paper and arranged obliquely (stalk parallel to the length of the box). Then fill the bottom of the box with 3-3 or 2-2 or also alternate 3-2 to cover the space between the fruit.

How Far To Plant Apple Trees Apart that was hopefully useful and thank you

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